Oracle Database Normalization

General Information
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Name Description
First Normal Form An entity is in First Normal Form (1NF) when all tables are two-dimensional with no repeating groups.

A row is in first normal form (1NF) if all underlying domains contain atomic values only. 1NF eliminates repeating groups by putting each into a separate table and connecting them with a one-to-many relationship. Make a separate table for each set of related attributes and uniquely identify each record with a primary key.
  • Eliminate duplicative columns from the same table.
  • Create separate tables for each group of related data and identify each row with a unique column or set of columns (the primary key).
Second Normal Form An entity is in Second Normal Form (2NF) when it meets the requirement of being in First Normal Form (1NF) and additionally:
  • Does not have a composite primary key. Meaning that the primary key can not be subdivided into separate logical entities.
  • All the non-key columns are functionally dependent on the entire primary key.
  • A row is in second normal form if, and only if, it is in first normal form and every non-key attribute is fully dependent on the key.
  • 2NF eliminates functional dependencies on a partial key by putting the fields in a separate table from those that are dependent on the whole key. An example is resolving many:many relationships using an intersecting entity.
Third Normal Form An entity is in Third Normal Form (3NF) when it meets the requirement of being in Second Normal Form (2NF) and additionally:
  • Functional dependencies on non-key fields are eliminated by putting them in a separate table. At this level, all non-key fields are dependent on the primary key.
  • A row is in third normal form if and only if it is in second normal form and if attributes that do not contribute to a description of the primary key are move into a separate table. An example is creating look-up tables.
Boyce-Codd Normal Form Boyce Codd Normal Form (BCNF) is a further refinement of 3NF. In his later writings Codd refers to BCNF as 3NF. A row is in Boyce Codd normal form if, and only if, every determinant is a candidate key. Most entities in 3NF are already in BCNF.

BCNF covers very specific situations where 3NF misses inter-dependencies between non-key (but candidate key) attributes. Typically, any relation that is in 3NF is also in BCNF. However, a 3NF relation won't be in BCNF if (a) there are multiple candidate keys, (b) the keys are composed of multiple attributes, and (c) there are common attributes between the keys.
Fourth Normal Form An entity is in Fourth Normal Form (4NF) when it meets the requirement of being in Third Normal Form (3NF) and additionally:
  • Has no multiple sets of multi-valued dependencies. In other words, 4NF states that no entity can have more than a single one-to-many relationship within an entity if the one-to-many attributes are independent of each other.
  • Many:many relationships are resolved independently.
Fifth Normal Form An entity is in Fifth Normal Form (5NF) if, and only if, it is in 4NF and every join dependency for the entity is a consequence of its candidate keys.

Related Topics
Codd's Rules
What's New In 21c
What's New In 23c

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